Color of oceans

Most of the ocean is blue in color, but in some places the ocean is blue-green, green, or even yellow to brown. Blue ocean color is a result of several factors. First, water preferentially absorbs red light, which means that blue light remains and is reflected back out of the water. Red light is most easily absorbed and thus does not reach great depths, usually to less than 50 meters (164 ft.). Blue light, in comparison, can penetrate up to 200 meters (656 ft.). Second, water molecules and very tiny particles in ocean water preferentially scatter blue light more than light of other colors. Blue light scattering by water and tiny particles happens even in the very clearest ocean water, and is similar to blue light scattering in the sky.

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depth of oceans

The average depth of the oceans is about 4 km. More precisely the average depth is 3,688 meters (12,100 ft). Nearly half of the world’s marine waters are over 3,000 meters (9,800 ft) deep.[19] “Deep ocean,” which is anything below 200 meters (660 ft.), covers about 66% of Earth’s surface. This figure does not include seas not connected to the World Ocean, such as the Caspian Sea.

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Ocean ridges and ocean basins

Every ocean basin has a mid-ocean ridge, which creates a long mountain range beneath the ocean. Together they form the global mid-oceanic ridge system that features the longest mountain range in the world. The longest continuous mountain range is 65,000 km (40,000 mi). This underwater mountain range is several times longer than the longest continental mountain range—the Andes.

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Natural history of oceans

Over vast periods of time, our primitive ocean formed. Water remained a gas until the Earth cooled below 212 degrees Fahrenheit . At this time, about 3.8 billion years ago, the water condensed into rain which filled the basins that we now know as our world ocean. 1521: Ferdinand Magellan tried to measure the depth of the Pacific Ocean with a weighted line, but did not find the bottom. 1818: The British researcher Sir John Ross was the first to find that the deep sea is inhabited by life when catching jellyfish and worms in about 2,000 m (6,562 ft) depth with a special device.

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Ocean and sea

The terms “the ocean” or “the sea” used without specification refer to the interconnected body of salt water covering the majority of the Earth’s surface. It includes the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Southern and Arctic Oceans. As a general term, “the ocean” and “the sea” are often interchangeable, although speakers of British English refer to “the sea” in all cases, even when the body of water is one of the oceans.

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Who Owns the Oceans?

Imagine the following scenario. A passenger liner owned by a company in Great Britain, but registered in Malta, carries passengers from 35 different countries on a cruise. It collides 65 miles off the South Carolina coast with a cargo ship owned by a Norwegian company and registered in Panama. It carries cargo from the Port of New York to Cape Town, South Africa. Legal issues arise as to who was responsible for the accident and who will pay for damages and injuries to passengers, cargo, and the ships involved. Where does this case come to trial, and who makes the decisions on the legal issues involved?

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About Coastline

The coastline is the boundary between a body of water, such as an ocean or a sea, and the land to which it is adjacent. Coastlines are not constant features but are continuously changing as the result of geological, weather, and other forces. Perhaps the most common factor affecting a coastline is tides. Tides are periodic rises and falls of sea level caused by the gravitational attraction of the Moon and Sun. As Earth rotates on its axis and travels around the Sun, it takes different positions with respect to these two bodies. Sometimes the three bodies are lined up with Earth between the Moon and the Sun:

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World Oceans

Scientists now recognize five bodies of water as oceans today: Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic, and Southern (also called the Antarctic). Depending on the authority, seven oceans may be identified, with the Pacific divided into the North and South Pacific and the Atlantic into the North and South Atlantic. Table 1.1 summarizes some major properties of the five oceans.

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Where did Earth’s oceans come from?

Where did Earth’s oceans come from? That question has intrigued researchers for centuries. Unraveling the origin and evolution of the oceans is a greater challenge than it is for landforms. In the latter case, solid materials (rocks) that formed billions of years ago are still in place and can be studied to determine their age and evolution. Water that makes up the oceans presents a different problem. That water existed at one point in Earth’s history almost entirely in the form of water vapor in the atmosphere, and at other times, it existed at least partially in the form of snow and ice. Determining the precise amount of water present at any one time in Earth’s history, and its location and boundaries, is, therefore, a challenging task.

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ABOUT THE LANDMASSES IN THE WORLD

Only about 29 percent of Earth’s surface consists of land; the remaining 71 percent is water or ice. Thus, less than one-third of our planet is habitable by human beings, and much of this area is too dry, too cold, or too rugged to allow large concentrations of settlement. Our livable world-where permanent settlement is possible-is small indeed. Each of the six continental landmasses possesses unique physical properties, some of which are listed

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Continents and Oceans

There is an old saying that “the Earth has six continents and seven seas.” In fact, that generalization is not too far off the mark. Earth has six continental landmasses:
Africa, South America, North America, Eurasia (Europe and Asia occupy a single large landmass), Australia,
and Antarctica. As for the seven seas, there are five great oceanic bodies of water and several smaller seas.

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world maps via oceans and seas(google map and high resolution pdf map)

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About the South China Sea

With the ports of Singapore at one end and Hong Kong-Macau at the other, the South China Sea is one of the most heavily shipped seas in the world. The South China Sea is one of the most important economic and environmental regions in the world. More than half of the world’s fishing vessels are in the South China Sea, and millions of people depend on these waters for their food and livelihoods.

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About changing Sea Levels

The heights of mountains and the altitude of aircraft
are often given as ‘above sea level’, as if the level of the sea
was permanently fixed. Yet even in the present day, it is very
difficult to pinpoint the level of the sea accurately. The sea moves
continuously, not only with the tides, but with wind, waves, and
currents, and even daily changes in temperature and chemistry. In
the UK, heights are measured relative to the Ordnance Datum, an
average achieved by year upon year of measurements of the mean
sea level shown by tide gauges at particular sites.

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what is the meaning of TSUNAMI?

Tsunami is a Japanese word that is made of two
characters: tsu and nami. The character tsu means
harbor, while the character nami means wave.
Therefore, the original word tsunami describes large
wave oscillations inside a harbor during a ‘tsunami’
event. In the past, tsunami is often referred to as
‘tidal wave’, which is a misnomer. Tides, featuring
the rising and falling of water level in the ocean in a
daily, monthly, and yearly cycle, are caused by
gravitational influences of the moon, sun, and planets.
Tsunamis are not generated by this kind of
gravitational forces and are unrelated to the tides,
although the tidal level does influence a tsunami
striking a coastal area.

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ABOUT ANTARCTIC FISHES

The Southern Ocean ichthyofauna is relatively sparse
and unusual in composition, consisting of 213
species belonging to only 18 families

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About the Baltic Sea

Etymology. The first to name it the Baltic Sea (“Mare Balticum”) was 11th century German chronicler Adam of Bremen. The origin of the name is speculative. He may have based it on the mythical North European island Baltia, mentioned by Xenophon. The Baltic Sea is surrounded by nine countries: Denmark, Germany, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Russia, Finland and Sweden. As long as people have lived here, the Baltic Sea has served as an avenue to connect the bordering countries and as a source of human livelihood. The largest expanse of brackish water in the world, the semienclosed and relatively shallow Baltic Sea is of great interest to scientists, while to historians it represents the economic core of the Hanseatic League, the great medieval trading group of northern European ports.

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About the North Sea

Few of the world’s seas have come under such environmental pressure as the Baltic and North seas. Both seas are surrounded by cities, ports, and industry and some of the most intensively farmed land in the world. The North Sea has long been important as one of Europe’s most productive fisheries. It also serves as a prominent shipping zone among European countries and between Europe and the Middle East.
The North Sea (historically also known as the German Ocean) is a part of the Atlantic Ocean, located between Norway and Denmark in the east, Scotland and England in the west, and Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and France in the south. The North Sea is bounded by the coastlines of England, Scotland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and France, and by imaginary lines delimiting the western approaches to the Channel (5°W), the northern Atlantic between Scotland and Norway (62°N, 5°W), and the Baltic in the Danish Straits.

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About suez Canal Invasion

The canal is operated and maintained by the state-owned Suez Canal Authority (SCA) of Egypt. The Suez Canal is a man-made waterway connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Indian Ocean via the Red Sea. It enables a more direct route for shipping between Europe and Asia, effectively allowing for passage from the North Atlantic to the Indian Ocean without having to circumnavigate the African continent. In 1854, Ferdinand de Lesseps, the former French consul to Cairo, secured an agreement with the Ottoman governor of Egypt to build a canal 100 miles across the Isthmus of Suez. The Suez Canal is a human-made waterway that cuts north-south across the Isthmus of Suez in Egypt. The Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea, making it the shortest maritime route to Asia from Europe. Since its completion in 1869, it has become one of the world’s most heavily used shipping lanes.

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About the Mediterranean

Geologists once thought that the Mediterranean was a tiny remnant of the Tethys Sea, the great ocean that once separated the world’s northern and southern continents. In fact, the Black Sea is the only remnant of the Tethys in Europe. The Mediterranean has a far briefer but more complex history. Essentially, the Mediterranean is a deep basin between the converging tectonic plates of Europe, Anatolia, and Africa, and the eastern, central, and western Mediterranean have different geological histories, which is why today, the east is earthquake prone, the centre is dotted with active volcanoes, and the west is relatively quiet.

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The Seas of Europe

Europe is surrounded by seas, none of them large or very deep, but they are hugely rich ecologically and culturally. The continent is bound by the Atlantic, the Arctic Ocean, the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. The Baltic is entirely within Europe. Each of these is subdivided into smaller seas and straits.

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The Midnight Zone at the oceans

The Midnight Zone is the part of the ocean where more than 75 percent of all the ocean’s water lies. It starts at 3,281 feet below the surface and goes all the way to a depth of 13,124 feet (1,000–4,000 meters). That’s almost 3 miles!

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what is the meaning of Thermocline?

The thermocline is a layer of water in the twilight zone of the ocean where the water temperature drops really quickly. The sun’s light and warmth keep the sunlight zone pretty warm, and the wind and waves mix that warmth to a certain depth, around 330 feet (100 meters). But below the sunlight zone the water temperature starts dropping quickly. The temperature difference from the top of the thermocline to the bottom can be as great as almost 60 degrees Fahrenheit (about 20 degrees Celsius). Below about 1,000 feet (300 meters), the ocean temperatures stay pretty much the same.

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what is below the Surface of the ocean?

Oceanographers usually divide ocean waters into separate layers, called zones, from the surface all the way to the seafloor. Zones are based on the amount of sunlight that can penetrate the water’s layers and have appropriate names: the sunlight zone, the twilight zone, and the midnight zone. We know most about the upper layers of the ocean, because that’s where humans are most able to explore. Those layers are also where most sea life can be found.

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Why Ocean is salty?

If you’ve ever swum in the ocean, you’ve probably tasted a mouthful of seawater. It’s pretty salty. In fact, it’s 220 times more salty than freshwater. Th t’s a lot of salt! And scientists have wondered for a long time why the oceans contain so much salt. After all, freshwater pours into the oceans from rivers all over the world 365 days each year, and millions of gallons of water fall on the oceans as rain all the time. But that’s actually part of the reason why the sea got so salty in the first place, and stays salty now.

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About the Arctic Ocean

The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest ocean in the world. It is also almost completely landlocked— surrounded by North America, Europe, and northern Asia.

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About the Southern Ocean

The Southern Ocean surrounds the continent of Antarctica. Th e Southern Ocean wasn’t an “official” ocean until 2000. Until then, it was usually called the Antarctic Ocean, and was considered a polar region of the other three major oceans. But scientists realized that the winds that blow around the continent of Antarctica are so strong that the surface currents of the Southern Ocean qualify it as its own ocean. Th e Southern Ocean’s official boundaries are all the waters that lie south of 60 degrees south latitude.

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About the Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is located mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, between Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and Antarctica. It’s the third-largest ocean, and holds about 20 percent of the world’s ocean waters. The Indian ocean is named after India because: India holds a central location which is at the head of the Indian Ocean. India in ancient times was an important location in the Indian Ocean which connected Europe with countries of Southeast Asia.

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About the Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest ocean in the world, about half the size of the Pacific. It is shaped like an “S” and separates Europe and Africa from North and South America.
Th e Atlantic Ocean is home to the world’s longest mountain range, called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which stretches 10,000 miles (16,000 kilometers) under the ocean from Iceland all the way to the southern tip of Africa.

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About the Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean is the largest ocean in the world. It covers more than a third of the entire planet, and reaches from the far north of the Northern Hemisphere to the far south of the Southern Hemisphere. Th e Pacific Ocean is so big that all the continents and almost all of the other oceans could fit into it.

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What Is the Ocean?

Our planet is covered in water. The oceans cover more than two-thirds of the earth’s surface and contain almost all of the living space on the planet. That’s because the living space of the oceans is both on and below the surface. Miles below the surface.

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What Makes a Continent a Continent?

According to a 2017 paper published in the Geological Society of America’s journal, GSA Today, “The ‘Glossary of Geology’ defines a continent as ‘one of the Earth’s major landmasses, including both dry land and continental shelves.’ It is generally agreed that continents have all the following attributes: (1) high elevation relative to regions floored by oceanic crust; (2) a broad range of siliceous igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks; (3) thicker crust and lower seismic velocity structure than oceanic crustal regions; and (4) well-defined limits around a large enough area to be considered a continent rather than a microcontinent or continental fragment… To our knowledge, the last point — how ‘major’ a piece of continental crust has to be to be called a continent — is almost never discussed.”

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SEATTLE Port info

SEATTLE is located at US West Coast, US West Coast in USA at coordinates N 47° 37′ 16.30″ – W 122° 21′ 51.65″. The official UN/Locode of this port is USSEA.

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HAMBURG Port info

HAMBURG is located at UK Coast & Atlantic, Elbe River in Germany at coordinates N 53° 30′ 25.19″ – E 009° 57′ 42.83″. The official UN/Locode of this port is DEHAM. It is also known as DEHBU.

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FORT LAUDERDALE Port info

FORT LAUDERDALE is located at US East Coast, US East Coast in USA at coordinates N 26° 10′ 32.26″ – W 080° 08′ 17.07″. The official UN/Locode of this port is USFLL. It is also known as FT LAUDERDALE,LAUDERDALE,FTLAUDERDALE.

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ISTANBUL Canal info

ISTANBUL is located at Black Sea, Marmara Sea in Turkey at coordinates N 41° 05′ 38.62″ – E 029° 02′ 08.75″. The official UN/Locode of this port is TRIST. It is also known as BOSPORUS,BOSPHORUS,TURKEY.

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ANTWERP Port info

ANTWERP is located at UK Coast & Atlantic, Antwerp Area in Belgium at coordinates N 51° 18′ 08.96″ – E 004° 18′ 41.25″. The official UN/Locode of this port is BEANR. It is also known as ANTWERPEN,BEANT,ANVERS,BEAAA.

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AMSTERDAM Port info

AMSTERDAM is located at UK Coast & Atlantic, North Sea in Netherlands at coordinates N 52° 22′ 14.70″ – E 004° 52′ 44.23″. The official UN/Locode of this port is NLAMS. It is also known as NLAMS.

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HONG KONG Port info

HONG KONG is located at South China, South China in Hong Kong at coordinates N 22° 17′ 16.61″ – E 114° 10′ 52.91″. The official UN/Locode of this port is HKHKG. It is also known as HONGKONG,CN HKG,XIANGGANG,XIANG GANG.

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