Navigational Regimes of Particular Straits, Torres Strait case study

The Torres Strait has been defined as the area of water between Cape York Peninsula in Australia’s extreme north coastline and the islands of New Guinea. It is bounded in the west by the Arafura Sea and in the east by the Great Barrier Reef and the Coral Sea. The strait is about 81 miles (150 km) wide and almost 108 miles (200 km) long between the islands at its eastern and western ends. The strait is, however, shallow and contains reefs and many small islands.

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Navigational Regimes of Particular Straits, United Kingdom Straits(Dover Strait, North Channel, Fair Isle Gap) case study

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Navigational Regimes of Particular Straits, Tiran case study

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Navigational Regimes of Particular Straits, Sunda and Lombok case study

Sunda Strait, located between the Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Java, provides the major sea link between the Indian Ocean and the Java Sea and into East Asian waters. (See Map 25 above.) It is approximately 50 miles long, and at its narrowest point is 13.8 miles wide. Sangian Island separates the 2.4-milewide western channel and the 3.7-mile-wide eastern channel. Sunda’s governing depth is about 100 feet but is not considered suitable for submerged passage given the hydrographic characteristics of its northern exit and the extent of its commercial use.. Navigational Regimes of Particular Straits, Sunda and Lombok case study, How deep is the Lombok Strait?, How did Sunda Strait tsunami happen?, How many straits are there in the world?, Lombok Strait, Navigational Regimes of Particular Straits, Sunda and Lombok, Sunda Strait, The Indo-Pacific’s maritime choke points, What is the meaning of strait?, Where is Sunda Strait?, Which strait connects Java Sea to Indian Ocean?

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Navigational Regimes of Particular Straits, Baltic Straits(The Oresund and the Belts) case study

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Navigational Regimes of Particular Straits, Northwest Passage case study

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Navigational Regimes of Particular Straits, Northeast Passage (Barents Sea and the Chukchi Sea)case study

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Navigational Regimes of Particular Straits, Messina case study

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Navigational Regimes of Particular Straits, Malacca and Singapore case study

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Navigational Regimes of Particular Straits, Magellan case study

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Navigational Regimes of Particular Straits, Kuril Straits case study

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Navigational Regimes of Particular Straits, Hormuz case study

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Navigational Regimes of Particular Straits, Gibraltar case study

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Navigational Regimes of Particular Straits, Bosporus and Dardanelles case study

These straits, also known as the Turkish Straits or the Black Sea Straits, connect the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea via the Sea of Marmara. The Bosporus connects the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara, while the Dardanelles connects the Aegean Sea with the Sea of Marmara. The Bosporus is about 17 miles long and varies in width between one-third and 2 miles. The Dardanelles is about 35 miles long, its width decreases from 4 miles at the Aegean to about 0.7 miles at its narrowest; its depth varies from 160 to 320 feet. The Sea of Marmara is about 140 miles long. Navigational Regimes of Particular Straits, Bosporus and Dardanelles case study, A map showing the Straits, Aegean sea, Black Sea Straits, Bosporus and Dardanelles, How deep is the Bosporus Dardanelles channel?, Montreux Convention, Sea of Marmara, The Dardanelles and Bosporus Passages, Turkish Straits, Who controls Black Sea?, Why are the Bosporus and Dardanelles important?, Why are the Bosporus and Dardanelles straits significant

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Navigational Regimes of Particular Straits, Bonifacio case study

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Navigational Regimes of Particular Straits, Bab El Mandeb case study

This strategically important strait links the Red Sea and the Suez Canal with the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea (see Map 29). It is about 14.5 miles wide at its narrowest part of the passage. When it signed the Law of the Sea Convention, the Yemen Arab Republic declared that warships and warplanes must obtain the prior agreement of the Yemen Arab Republic before passing through or over its “territorial waters,” including international straits. The United States Government protested as follows:

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Navigational Regimes of Particular Straits, Aland case study

When it ratified the LOS Convention in 1996, Finland confirmed its declaration on signature in part that:
It is the understanding of the Government of Finland that the exception from the transit passage regime in straits provided for in article 35(c) of the Convention is applicable to the strait between Finland (the Åland Islands) and Sweden. Since in that strait the passage is regulated in part by a longstanding international convention in force, the present legal regime in that strait will remain unchanged after the entry into force of the Convention. Navigational Regimes of Particular Straits, Aland case study, Aland case study, Finland, Gulf of Bothnia, international straits, legal regime in that strait, Particular Straits

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what is the meaning of “Coastal State” in law of the sea, LOSC and customary international law

“Coastal State” is a State from whose coast or baselines the breadth of the territorial sea is measured, those baselines being determined in accordance with UNCLOS Articles 5–7, 9–10 and 47. what is the meaning of “Coastal State” in law of the sea, LOSC and customary international law, coastal State, coastal State obligations with respect to innocent passage, land-locked State, What is a coastal state under Unclos?, What is coastal state control?, What is the coastal state?, what is the meaning of “Coastal State” in law of the sea, Where is the coastal state?

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Rights and Obligations of Coastal States Bordering Straits based on international law of the sea and customary international law

The coastal State has a right to adopt laws and regulations relating to transit passage through straits. Under Article 42(1), those laws and regulations involve:
(a) the safety of navigation and the regulation of maritime traffic, as provided in Article 41,
(b) the prevention, reduction and control of pollution, by giving effect to applicable international regulations regarding the discharge of oil, oily wastes and other noxious substances in the strait,
(c) with respect to fishing vessels, the prevention of fishing, including the stowage of fishing gear, and
(d) the loading or unloading of any commodity, currency or person in contravention of the customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations of States bordering straits. States bordering straits are required to give due publicity to all such laws and regulations in accordance with Article 41(3).
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international law of the sea and The Right of Transit Passage on the international straits

Article 38(2) of LOSC defines transit passage as:
the exercise in accordance with this Part [III] of the freedom of navigation and overflight solely for the purpose of continuous and expeditious transit of the strait between one part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone and another part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone.
This provision continues that: ‘the requirement of continuous and expeditious transit does not preclude passage through the strait for the purpose of entering, leaving or returning from a State bordering the strait, subject to the conditions of entry to that State’. Thus the transit passage includes lateral and inward/outward-bound passage. The right of transit passage in international straits differs from the right of innocent passage in the territorial sea in four respects.. international law of the sea and The Right of Transit Passage on the international straits, Chicago Convention with respect to the airspace over the straits, continuous and expeditious transit, exclusive economic zone, freedom of navigation, international straits, submarines, transit passage, UNCLOS III

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what is the meaning of INTERNATIONAL STRAITS and its legal issues (typology and rules)

The straits under Part III of the LOSC contain two types of straits: straits to which the regime of transit passage applies and straits to which the right of innocent passage applies.
The first type concerns straits to which the regime of transit passage applies. In this regard, Article 37 provides: This section applies to straits which are used for international navigation between one part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone and another part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone. This provision contains two criteria for identifying international straits under Part III.
The first is the geographical criterion. Such straits are those connecting ‘one part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone and another part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone’. The second is the functional criterion, namely ‘straits used for international navigation’. Concerning the relationship between the two criteria, the ICJ, in the Corfu Channel case, seemed to consider that the geographical criterion provided the primary criterion… what is the meaning of INTERNATIONAL STRAITS and its legal issues (typology and rules), Åland Islands, Åland Strait, archipelagic waters, Arctic Ocean, Arctic waters, Article 36 of the LOSC, Atlantic Oceans, Corfu Channel judgment, Dardanelles, Dover Strait, EEZ, international navigation, international shipping, international straits, LOSC, Montreux Convention, non-suspendable innocent passage, Osumi Strait, right of innocent passage, Strait of Gibraltar, Strait of Magellan, Straits of Malacca, territorial sea, territorialisation, transit passage, Turkish Straits

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The Obligations of the Coastal State Concerning Innocent Passage (treaties and customary international law)

In light of the importance of sea communication for all States, the LOSC places certain obligations upon the coastal State to ensure the interests of navigation in its territorial sea.
First, under Article 24(1) of the LOSC, the coastal State is obliged not to hamper the innocent passage of foreign ships and not to discriminate in form or in fact against the ships of any State or against ships carrying cargoes to, from or on behalf of any State.
Second, the coastal State is under the obligation to give appropriate publicity to any danger to navigation under Article 24(2). This obligation follows from the dictum in the Corfu Channel judgment.
Third, no charge may be levied upon foreign ships by reason only of their passage through the territorial sea pursuant to Article 26.. The Obligations of the Coastal State Concerning Innocent Passage (treaties and customary international law), Article 24(1) of the LOSC, coastal State, Corfu Channel judgment, Innocent Passage

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The Rights of the Coastal State Concerning Innocent Passage (treaties and customary international law)

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what is the meaning of International waterways?

A strait, canal, river, or lake lying between or passing through two or more nations, or forming a passage between two areas of the high seas, regarded as freely navigable under international law.

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