in wikipedia we read The Arctic (/ˈɑːrktɪk/ or /ˈɑːrtɪk/) is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Alaska (United States), Canada, Finland, Greenland (Denmark), Iceland, Norway, Russia, and Sweden. Land within the Arctic region has seasonally varying snow and ice cover, with predominantly treeless permafrost (permanently frozen underground ice) containing tundra. Arctic seas contain seasonal sea ice in many places.
The Arctic region is a unique area among Earth’s ecosystems. The cultures in the region and the Arctic indigenous peoples have adapted to its cold and extreme conditions. Life in the Arctic includes zooplankton and phytoplankton, fish and marine mammals, birds, land animals, plants and human societies. Arctic land is bordered by the subarctic.
also in britanica, and characterized by distinctively polar conditions of climate, plant and animal life, and other physical features. The term is derived from the Greek arktos (“bear”), referring to the northern constellation of the Bear. It has sometimes been used to designate the area within the Arctic Circle—a mathematical line that is drawn at latitude 66°30′ N, marking the southern limit of the zone in which there is at least one annual period of 24 hours during which the sun does not set and one during which it does not rise. This line, however, is without value as a geographic boundary, since it is not keyed to the nature of the terrain.
While no dividing line is completely definitive, a generally useful guide is the irregular line marking the northernmost limit of the stands of trees. The regions north of the tree line include Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat), Svalbard, and other polar islands; the northern parts of the mainlands of Siberia, Alaska, and Canada; the coasts of Labrador; the north of Iceland; and a strip of the Arctic coast of Europe. The last-named area, however, is classified as subarctic because of other factors.
Conditions typical of Arctic lands are extreme fluctuations between summer and winter temperatures; permanent snow and ice in the high country and grasses, sedges, and low shrubs in the lowlands; and permanently frozen ground (permafrost), the surface layer of which is subject to summer thawing. Three-fifths of the Arctic terrain is outside the zones of permanent ice. The brevity of the Arctic summer is partly compensated by the long daily duration of summer sunshine.
International interest in the Arctic and subarctic regions has steadily increased during the 20th century, particularly since World War II. Three major factors are involved: the advantages of the North Pole route as a shortcut between important centres of population, the growing realization of economic potentialities such as mineral (especially petroleum) and forest resources and grazing areas, and the importance of the regions in the study of global meteorology.
The Arctic is a familiar and yet an alien place. It is recognizable as the place you probably imagine when you think of winter and as the home of polar bears, reindeer (caribou), arctic foxes and wolves. It is also a huge almost boundless, wide-skied spectacularly scenic wilderness with glaciers, mountains, icebergs, rolling green tundra, with rich history of exploration and habitation by many groups of endemic peoples.
The Arctic is centered on the North Pole which is surrounded by the Arctic Ocean much of which is frozen, obviously more so in winter than summer. This is then fringed by Canada, Greenland, Europe and Russia. The geography makes it relatively easy to access the Arctic from many points.
A sled patiently waits out the Arctic summer surrounded by wildflowers
We can help guide you through the options for Arctic travel, where to go, how long to spend there, the specific itinerary and the level of comfort or luxury you are looking for. Guided by a mixture of ice and wildlife experts, and seasoned seafarers who will look out to make the most of the plan while taking opportunities that present themselves along the way, we can ensure your Arctic visit is as memorable as it can be.
We often forget that we are nature. Nature is not something separate from us. So when we say that we have lost our connection to nature, we say that we have lost our connection to ourselves.
We are the caribou people. Caribou are not just what we eat; they are who we are. They are in our stories and songs and the whole way we see the world. Caribou are our life.
How much does it cost?
From around USD $2,800 for a cruise place in a twin cabin, (triples or quads may be available for less) this does not include the price of air fare and other associated costs to and from your point of embarkation and return. There are many price points up to USD $50 000 and even beyond. Solo travellers can pay a supplement for a private cabin or can be paired with another traveller of the same gender in a shared cabin at the standard shared cabin rate. Of course the higher prices get you a longer trip and the more luxurious cabins on the more luxurious vessels.
Boats and ships can be chartered privately if you want to put together your own trip and run your own itinerary, cost somewhat negotiable depending on length of trip and time of year, but similar per passenger to the mid to high priced scheduled trips.
A vast open vista in the Canadian archipelago, cruise ship edge of picture, right
$8,000 -$12,000 per passenger for a 8-14 day cruise is a reasonable price to expect and will give a good choice of trips, ships and cabins.
Land based trips flying in and out are between about $8,000 and $16,000 per person, there is usually one standard rate rather than a range of cabins available as with ship based cruises.
It is also possible to arrange Arctic trips as a budget traveller (relatively speaking) organizing flights, accommodation in a hostel or camping and daily activities yourself. Be aware however that as the Arctic has to import much of its food and supplies from elsewhere, that prices of many things are more expensive than you would expect at home, this applies in ordinary stores as well as at tourist facilities. Cafes and restaurants are not so common and can be an expensive option, even relatively modest establishments. Land based tourism in the Arctic isn’t so developed, scheduled trips and events may not run unless there are enough people to make it worthwhile for the operator, travelling as a group can be more successful.
Glacier front in Svalbard
There are generally very few extras to allow for on organized Arctic trips, they are “All Inclusive” in terms of the great majority of needs and requirements, typically trips are from port-to-port.
Usually included in all trips
- Accommodation and all meals on board.
- Snacks, coffee and tea.
- Programme of lectures on the ship and guidance ashore by an expedition team.
- Daily shore excursions, hiking program.
- Transfers from hotel to ship on the day of departure and to airport at end of the cruise.
- Miscellaneous port fees, landing charges and taxes.
May be included in some trips
- Loan of waterproof boots for landings.
- Complimentary parka or wind/water resistant jacket to keep.
- Some alcoholic and soft drinks.
- Photography program.
- Depending on the start and end points there may be a required charter flight to/from an isolated airport, this may be included or may be a required extra.
Usually not included
- Flights to port of departure and back, transfer at port to hotel.
- Personal communications, phone calls, email, fax, internet use.
- Optional excursions where available, kayaking, snow-shoeing etc.
- Medical and evacuation insurance (compulsory).
A town in Greenland
When and where do trips take place?
Arctic trips by ship around ice-free coastal zones take place between spring and late summer, a five month period from May to September. In high summer in the high Arctic you may have constant daylight over the whole period of your trip.
Lower temperatures, shorter days and thickening sea-ice from October to April mean that trips by sea and a little later on, by land come to an end. Even during the summer season sea ice can be unpredictable and the itinerary will vary according to what is possible if ice prevents the planned itinerary from taking place. There are a number of icebreakers that operate tourist cruises in the Arctic so allowing them to go places that other cruise ships cannot.
Drying fish is a traditional practice for many Arctic cultures
Land based trips start in March when there is a better chance of seeing the Northern Lights and day length is around 12 hours though temperatures are still cold, they continue through to nearly the end of November with the later season trips visiting polar bears building up at the edge of forming sea-ice before the winter migration.Temperature Range; May to August – 2C to + 12C / 28F to 54F average daily high and low
May & June (Late Spring / Early Summer)
- Salmon are returning from the sea in Alaska
- Polar bears will still be hunting seals on the ice floes.
- Caribou migrations.
- Winter snow and ice still in abundance especially on the mountains. The scenery is white, clean and pristine with pack ice and icebergs.
July and August (Mid Summer)
- Normally The Arctic’s warmest months.
- Arctic flowers in full bloom, best in July.
- Longer days create great light conditions and fabulous photo opportunities at midnight.
- Receding ice allows for more exploration.
- West-Greenland whale watching trips underway now.
- Wildlife sightings their height, especially birds.
- Best time for beluga whales in Canada
- Best time for seeing polar bears on Svalbard
- North-west passage accessible.
October – November (Autumn / Fall)
- Polar bears assemble in Canada waiting for the winter sea-ice to form, this month and into November.
Tourism in The Arctic
Defining the region. The Arctic is often considered to be the area north of 60 degrees.
The Arctic consists of an ocean which includes the North Pole surrounded by land. The Arctic Circle where conditions of 24 hours of daylight can be experienced in the summer months is relatively easy to reach, more so than the Antarctic Circle, Whereas most Antarctic trips don’t reach the Antarctic Circle, many Arctic trips can be spent wholly or partially inside the Arctic Circle.
The Arctic comprises of parts of a number of different countries, there are around 4 million permanent residents. There are some large towns and cities, the largest being Murmansk in Russia with 325,100 inhabitants, though many of the people are spread rather thinly in smaller towns and communities. There are also many large habitations near to the Arctic with air and sea ports which makes for easy access.
The human population is the biggest contrast between the two poles, the Arctic has been inhabited by people for many thousands of years whereas the Antarctic has never had any indigenous population and still doesn’t have any permanent residents. There are many groups of Arctic peoples such as the Inuit, Chukchi, Sami, Yupik, Buryat and Inupiat amongst others each with their own traditions and cultures.
Arctic tourism appeals to people who want to experience the fabulous wildlife, the pristine landscapes and wide open spaces and local cultures.
There are many ways to visit the Arctic, ship based cruises, residential lodges deep in the wilderness and more traditional accommodation in hotels, hostels and all standards of overnight lodging combined with day trips and short tours of a few days out and away from the main habitations.
There are cruises and trips that take place all around the Arctic region, it is even possible to go to the North Pole itself on board a nuclear powered icebreaker, or sail the fabled North West Passage. Different regions have different characteristics and must-see places and events
Weather and ice particularly if cruising often set the schedule for journeys to the Arctic. An amount of flexibility is necessary as to what will happen when even in midsummer. There will be alternatives and the very things that cause your itinerary to be altered can themselves be a different or better alternative to what you the plan was.
Topographic map of the Arctic region.
Seasonal ice is not shown though permanent ice-caps are. This view shows the sizes of features more accurately unlike the huge size that Greenland in particular appears on Mercator projection maps.
Where do trips leave from?
There are a number of easy access points to the Arctic all around the northern hemisphere, for most people unless you want to go to a specific region it is possible to go north to the Arctic without needing to go very far east or west. Flights are regular and frequent, as affordable as many other routes and often direct.
One of the easiest places to access the Arctic is through Northern Europe due to the closeness to many centers of population and the frequency of flights to Arctic travel hubs. The gulf stream that warms the west coast of Europe keeps the North Atlantic largely ice free past the British Isles, Iceland, the coast of Norway and even as far north as the Arctic Ocean around Svalbard in the summer months though this is well inside the Arctic Circle. Cruises around the European section of the Arctic therefore are very popular as shipping is less likely to be affected by sea-ice than in other parts. Iceland, Greenland, Norway, Finland, Sweden, Svalbard, and Russia in the area of the Barents Sea are all good starting points to experience the Arctic.
Cruising along a glacier front is breathtaking experience
There are a number of places to reach the Arctic across North America. Alaska offers many opportunities with a number of towns and cities where vacations can be taken or used as bases to strike out into the wilderness. The predictability and relative lack of ice in North Pacific and the “Inside Passage” makes it a reliable place for cruise ships in the summer months. Many large ships with “shows and restaurants” style cruising also ply these waters if this is your thing, some cruises are aimed squarely at families.
There are many cruises that start or end in the Canadian Arctic that include scheduled or charter flights to / from major airports such as Edmonton or Ottawa. A number of smaller habitations such as Resolute, Iqaluit and Cambridge Bay have airports that can transit passengers from larger cities to waiting cruise ships. In the East, Newfoundland and Quebec can be the start or end points for cruises.
Land trips often focus on wildlife and photography with small groups of 10-30 people. They can start earlier in the season than sea trips before the sea-ice has started to melt and disperse and can continue later when sea-ice is starting to reform again. Trips of this sort operate in Canada from wilderness lodges or camps, on Baffin Island flying in from Ottawa or Yellowknife and In Churchill for close up polar bear watching flying from Winnipeg. In Alaska, they operate from a number of starting points.
An ice-strewn Arctic beach
The town of Anadyr in the far eastern region of Chutotka region is a hub for land and sea journeys into the Russian Arctic. It is also the starting or ending point of longer cruises along the Northeast Passage ending at Svalbard, and as one end of journeys that include Nome in Alaska.
The Arctic is a geographic rather than a political region and documentation or visas may be required depending on your country of origin for all or any of the countries you may visit during your Arctic trip.
What kind of experience?
There are wide variety of ways in which to experience the Arctic. This is a trip that you should plan in advance more so than to many places in the world. Getting a ticket and deciding what to do when you are there could lead to some disappointment. There simply aren’t enough tourists reliably arriving for there to be many speculatively offered trips and experiences with any degree of confidence. In this way, the Arctic is the opposite of those places you have been with touts trying to get you to go on a boat trip leaving in half an hour. To make the most of a trip to the Arctic, you should plan your activities in advance as far as possible or arrange a visit where the itinerary is determined for you, a cruise fulfills the brief perfectly.
Many Arctic cruises aren’t like what may come to mind when you think of a cruise to warmer climates with onboard entertainment the priority and shore visits less important, though the larger the ship, the more likely there is to be entertainment provided. Cruises to Alaska are more likely to be of this ilk and some are aimed at families with children.
You will find a number of very well informed and experienced guides on many Arctic trips who will give lectures on a regular basis about various aspects of Arctic history and natural history. These will also often be around to socialize in the evenings along with some of the ships crew and captain.
An Icelandic farm
|Arctic – Svalbard / Spitsbergen – Sample Cruises – 2021|
|Trip||Departure Dates||Highlights||Pax||Prices USD*||Days||Departure port|
|Around Spitsbergen, Circumnavigation||2021: June – 02 / July – 01, 10, 19, 20, 28, 29 / Aug – 03, 12, 16||Circumnavigation of Spitsbergen, polar bears, glaciers, sea-ice, sea-bird colonies and other wildlife, hiking, child-friendly.||Research Ship|
Plancius, Ortelius or Hondius
– 108, 116, 174
|10||Longyearbyen, Svalbard – return – same|
|Spitsbergen in Depth||30/06/21, 07/07/22||Historic sites, sea-ice, glaciers, wild flowers, lush tundra, walrus, polar bears, reindeer, huge sea bird colonies, optional kayaking.||Scenic Exploration|
Ocean Adventurer – 128
|13||Longyearbyen, Svalbard – return – Oslo, Norway|
|Four Arctic Islands: Spitsbergen, Jan Mayen, Greenland and Iceland||29/08/21, 05/09/21||High Arctic Svalbard, volcanic Jan Mayen, nature reserve, Greenland’s fjords, Reykjavik, polar bears, walrus, sea-bird colonies, wild-flower tundra, hiking, optional kayaking.||Scenic Exploration|
Ocean Adventurer – 128
|$12,995 – $27,995||16||Oslo, Norway – disembark – Reykjavik, Iceland|
|Arctic – Greenland and Canada – Sample Cruises – 2021|
|Northwest Passage and Greenland||02/08/21, 01/08/22||Historic Canadian and Greenlandic sites, abundant wildlife, rich Inuit culture and dramatic icy landscapes. Polar bears, whales and walrus, hike across the tundra, optional kayaking.||Expedition Ship|
|17||Toronto, Canada – return – same|
|East Greenland from Iceland||07/09//21, 12/09/21||Spectacular scenery of East Greenland, Inuit culture, museums, historic sites. Fjords, mountains and ice, Seabirds, look out for humpback and minke whales. Optional kayaking on some voyages. Tie-in with a few days in Iceland before or after the cruise.||Research Ship|
Plancius or Ortelius or Hondius
– 108, 116, 174
|8||Reykjavik, Iceland – return – same|
|Northeast Greenland||08/08/21, 18/08/21, 02/09/21||The world’s largest fjord system, spectacular scenery, giant icebergs and glaciers, musk ox, arctic hares, sea-birds, Inuit culture, historic sites.||Small Expedition Ship|
|$8,290 – $10,090||8||By air from Iceland to Constable Point – return – same|
|Arctic – Land Based – Sample Trips – 2021|
|Trip||Departure Dates||Highlights||Pax||Prices USD*||Days||Departure port|
|Polar Bear Fly-in Safari||2021: Oct – 11, 15, 17, 19, 22, 23, 27, 30 / Nov – 04, 06, 11||Churchill, Canada in the fall is where polar bears congregate to wait for Hudson Bay to freeze over, see them from the Polar Bear Cabins complex.||Capacity – 16||TBA||8||Winnipeg, Canada – return – same|
* Prices are based per person, the lowest price is usually for triple occupancy in a basic cabin, the highest for double occupancy in the best available suite.
Options may be at additional cost and are usually booked when the cruise is booked – it may be too late once the cruise has started.
for more info going to : https://www.coolantarctica.com/Travel/arctic-travel.php