Barbados and assert overlapping EEZ claims and continental shelf entitlements in an OCA located opposite the North East coast of continental South America. As discussed in the following paragraphs, the jurisdictional entitlements of Barbados and Guyana in this are contested by . Design features of provisional joint management frameworks:In December 2003 both States concluded a treaty establishing a detailed framework for the cooperative management of this area (2003 Treaty). The 2003 Treaty is expressly characterized as an implementation of the , and LOSC provisions concerning provisional management of overlapping EEZ claims. The preambular text of the 2003 Treaty recognizes ‘the relevance and applicability' of LOSC Article 74(3) in addition to emphasizing the ‘universal and unified character' of the LOSC ‘and its fundamental importance for the maintenance and strengthening of international peace and security, as well as for the sustainable development of the oceans and seas'.Article 1(1) of the 2003 Treaty establishes a ‘Co-operation Zone' for the ‘exercise of joint jurisdiction, control, management, development, and exploration and exploitation of living and non-living , as well as all other rights and duties' established in the LOSC. The remaining paragraphs of Article 1 contain language designed to protect the positions of both States concerning of the OCA and the extent of their respective coastal State jurisdiction. They provide as follows: This Treaty and the Co-operation Zone established thereunder are without prejudice to the eventual delimitation of the Parties' respective zones in accordance with generally accepted principles of international law and the Convention. The Parties agree that nothing contained in the Treaty nor any act done by either Party under the provisions of the Treaty will represent a derogation from or diminution or renunciation of the rights of either Party within the Co-operation Zone or throughout the full breadth of their respective exclusive economic zones. The Co-operation Zone consists of defined triangular area that is declared to be co-extensive with the area of bilateral overlap between the EEZ claims of both States. The Zone is located (1) on the Venezuelan side of a comprehensive maritime boundary established by Venezuela and Trinidad & Tobago and (2) beyond from the undisputed portions of the coastlines of those States. The Zone is however defined by reference to a point located within 200 nautical miles of Guyana-administered territory west of the Essequibo River, which is also claimed by Venezuela. Venezuela has actively protested the of Barbados and Guyana in the vicinity of the ‘Co-operation Zone', and both Barbados and Guyana have expressed concern that the Trinidad & Tobago – Venezuela delimitation agreement infringes upon their claims to an EEZ and extended continental shelf. Accordingly, the 2003 Treaty may be viewed as a diplomatic response by both Parties to maritime claims promulgated by their regional neighbours. Nonetheless, the Treaty does make some effort to accommodate the positions of other States, both through the preambular acknowledgment LOSC delimitation provisions and through Article 4 which provides that:The Parties shall have…

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