Most of the ocean is blue in color, but in some places the ocean is blue-green, green, or even yellow to brown. Blue ocean color is a result of several factors. First, water preferentially absorbs red light, which means that blue light remains and is reflected back out of the water. Red light is most easily absorbed and thus does not reach great depths, usually to less than 50 meters (164 ft.). Blue light, in comparison, can penetrate up to 200 meters (656 ft.). Second, water molecules and very tiny particles in ocean water preferentially scatter blue light more than light of other colors. Blue light scattering by water and tiny particles happens even in the very clearest ocean water, and is similar to blue light scattering in the sky.View More Color of oceans
The average depth of the oceans is about 4 km. More precisely the average depth is 3,688 meters (12,100 ft). Nearly half of the world’s marine waters are over 3,000 meters (9,800 ft) deep. “Deep ocean,” which is anything below 200 meters (660 ft.), covers about 66% of Earth’s surface. This figure does not include seas not connected to the World Ocean, such as the Caspian Sea.View More depth of oceans
Every ocean basin has a mid-ocean ridge, which creates a long mountain range beneath the ocean. Together they form the global mid-oceanic ridge system that features the longest mountain range in the world. The longest continuous mountain range is 65,000 km (40,000 mi). This underwater mountain range is several times longer than the longest continental mountain range—the Andes.View More Ocean ridges and ocean basins￼
Over vast periods of time, our primitive ocean formed. Water remained a gas until the Earth cooled below 212 degrees Fahrenheit . At this time, about 3.8 billion years ago, the water condensed into rain which filled the basins that we now know as our world ocean. 1521: Ferdinand Magellan tried to measure the depth of the Pacific Ocean with a weighted line, but did not find the bottom. 1818: The British researcher Sir John Ross was the first to find that the deep sea is inhabited by life when catching jellyfish and worms in about 2,000 m (6,562 ft) depth with a special device.View More Natural history of oceans￼
The terms “the ocean” or “the sea” used without specification refer to the interconnected body of salt water covering the majority of the Earth’s surface. It includes the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Southern and Arctic Oceans. As a general term, “the ocean” and “the sea” are often interchangeable, although speakers of British English refer to “the sea” in all cases, even when the body of water is one of the oceans.View More Ocean and sea￼
Documents containing all the terms and conditions of the contract betweena shipowner and a charterer. Charter- parties, or charters as they are oftenreferred to, fall…View More what is the meaning of Charter- party in maritime law and shipping law?
A variety of documents arise from the chartering of a ship, commencing with
the document containing the contract itself, the charter- party. The type
of charter- party and its content depend on whether it is a time charter or
voyage charter and the type of commodity to be carried
Voyage charter freight, more often than not, consists of the ocean freight or
sea freight only. This is because cargoes of sufficient size to warrant chartering
a ship (charterable quantity) are larger than liner cargoes, normally
sufficient to fill the ship; the loading and discharging berths are very often
controlled by cargo owners or used frequently by them. Freight on this basis
is said to be on a free in and out basis.
This section examines the documentation associated with charters from the
perspective of the charterer. There are significant differences between time
charters and voyage charters in respect of the functions of the charterer and
hence of some of the documents involved.
Party who enters into a contract with a charterer or shipper, as the case may
be, for the carriage of cargo.
Cargoes fall into two basic categories: liquid and non- liquid, termed wet cargoes
and dry cargoes. Each type is carried in different ways for different reasons.
Repudiation of the contract, most often by the voyage charterer or time
charterer when the ship misses her cancelling date, or by the time charterer
when the ship is off hire for longer than the period stipulated in the
Every charter has a date by which the shipowner must tender notice of
readiness to the charterer that the ship has arrived at the port of loading and
is ready to load. This date is known as the cancelling date. The charterer
may have the option of cancelling the charter if the ship arrives after this date.
The bunker surcharge is a surcharge on the freight reflecting fluctuations in
the price of fuel, aimed at ensuring that shipping lines are not out of pocket
as a result of such fluctuations. The need for this surcharge arose suddenly
in 1974 when oil prices quadrupled. Fuel then became a significant element
in the shipowner’s costs (to a lesser extent it still is, although, because of the
high prices reached by bunker prices, shipowners have striven to find ways of
Single deck ships designed to carry homogeneous unpacked dry cargoes such
as sugar or cereals. Such ships have large hatchways to facilitate cargo handling,
hopper sides and wing tanks. The latter are used either for the carriage
of grain, other bulk cargoes or water ballast. Bulk carriers, or bulkers as they
are sometimes called, are built in a wide range of sizes and are generally gearless,
although smaller vessels may have their own gear.
A variety of specialised types of bulk carrier have evolved, and a number are
In this category fall the extra charges levied by shipping lines and liner conferences
which do not come under the headings of temporary surcharges. They
are many and varied and reflect, for example, the chosen voyage, the type of
cargo and cargo handling.
Clause in a bill of lading or charter- party which stipulates that, in the event of
a collision between two ships where both are at fault, the owners of the cargo
must indemnify the carrying ship against any amount paid by the carrying ship
to the non- carrying ship for damage to that cargo. This clause arises because,
under American law, a cargo owner is not able to make any recovery from
the carrier for damage resulting from negligent navigation but may instead
sue the non- carrying ship which, in turn, seeks recovery from the carrying
ship in proportion to its fault. This would render a carrier indirectly liable for
a loss for which he is not directly liable to the cargo owner. The clause has,
however, been held to be invalid in the American courts when incorporated
into a contract with a common carrier.
Reservations made by a shipper or his agent with a carrier for the carriage of
certain defined goods from a place of loading to a place of discharging. To
reserve space in this way is to book space. This can be done in different ways,
including online. The document containing the terms and conditions of the
contract between a shipper and a shipping line is called the booking note or
liner booking note. This document is superseded by the bill of lading when
this is established.
BIMCO is a shipping association providing a wide range of services to its
global membership of stakeholders who have vested interests in the shipping
industry, including shipowners, operators, managers, brokers and agents.
The association’s main objective is to facilitate the commercial operations
of its membership by means of developing standard contracts and clauses and
providing quality information, advice and education.
BIMCO (the Baltic and International Maritime Council) publishes a number of standard time charter- parties covering a wide variety of situations. These are listed here:View More what is the meaning BIMCO time charter- parties in maritime law and international law
BIMCO (the Baltic and International Maritime Council) publishes a number of standard forms for use in a variety of situations. These are listed here:View More what is the meaning BIMCO sundry documents in maritime law and international law
BIMCO (the Baltic and International Maritime Council) publish a widerange of clauses:Arbitration ClausesAverage Bond Clause 2007BIMCHEMTIME Vetting and Inspection ClauseBIMCO/IPTA Vegoil Tank Pre- wash ClauseBoth-…View More what is BIMCO sundry clauses terms
Most bills of lading are printed on both sides. On the face (front) are boxes
or spaces into which are entered all the information necessary to identify the
particular cargo, the journey, the names and addresses of cargo interests and,
possibly, other details, such as freight.
Document issued by a shipowner to a shipper of goods. It serves three purposes:
a receipt for the goods, evidence of the contract of carriage and document
of title. It contains full details of the cargo (see below).
Depending on the particular requirements of cargo interests, a number
of originals – often three – and a number of non- negotiable copies are
issued. One original bill of lading is surrendered to the carrying ship
at the discharge port or destination in exchange for the goods. Such a
bill of lading is then said to be accomplished. Once this is done, any
other original bills become non- negotiable. The copy bills of lading
are retained for reference by various parties including the shipper and
Place in a port alongside a quay where a ship loads (loading berth) or discharges
(discharging berth) cargo or, in the case of a lay- by berth, waits
until a loading or discharging berth is available. This term is also frequently
used to signify a place alongside a quay, each of which is capable of accommodating
only one ship at a time.
The hiring or leasing of a ship for a period of time during which the shipowner
provides only the ship while the charterer provides the crew together with all
stores and bunkers and pays all operating costs. This type of charter is favoured
by persons or companies who wish to own a ship for investment purposes but
who do not have the desire or expertise to operate the ship. Similarly, it is
favoured by persons or companies who have a particular requirement for a
ship and the expertise with which to operate one but without the wish or
ability to purchase. Typical of this category are shipping lines who may wish
to take a ship on for a period of many years but who do not wish to make a
large capital investment by buying one.
The Baltic Exchange is a membership organisation at the heart of the global
maritime marketplace. It provides independent daily shipping market information,
maintains professional shipbroking standards and resolves disputes.
Baltic Exchange members are at the heart of world trade, arranging for
the ocean transportation of industrial bulk commodities from producer to
end user. The bulk freight market relies on the co- operation of shipbrokers,
shipowners and charterers to ensure the free flow of trade.
Baltic Exchange shipbrokers undertake to abide by a code of business
conduct based on the motto “Our Word Our Bond” and those who breach
the code are disciplined or expelled.
Heavy weight, often sea water, which gives a ship stability and improves
handling when she is at sea. This may replace the cargo when the ship is not
loaded or may be pumped in during a voyage to replace fuel and water consumed.
Such a ship is said to be steaming in ballast or ballasting. A ballast
tank is a general term given to any tank or compartment in a ship which is
used for ballast when the ship is not carrying cargo.
Requirement of all voyage charters that the ship must have arrived before
notice of readiness can be given and hence laytime can commence. Where a
berth or dock has been nominated by the charterer, the ship must have arrived
at that berth or dock. When a port is nominated, the ship must have arrived
at the port, although various legal decisions have defined a port differently in
this context in cases where there is no berth available and the ship is obliged