Cargoes fall into two basic categories: liquid and non- liquid, termed wet cargoesand dry cargoes. Each type is carried in different ways for different reasons.Dry cargoes fall into three main categories: conventional, containerisedand roll- on/roll- off. A conventional cargo, sometimes referred to as breakbulkcargo, is one which is lifted on and off a one piece, or bundle, at atime by means of cranes or derricks, but not shipped on trailers or in shippingcontainers. Such cargoes are carried in conventional ships which, if operatedon a regular basis between advertised , provide a conventional service.These ships are often of the tween deck or multideck type which not onlyallows them to carry safely cargoes having many different stowage requirementsbut also facilitates distribution in the ship of cargo for several ports ofdischarge. Conventional cargo is cargo which very often does not fit into oronto any of the standard shipping containers by virtue of its length, width orheight. Such cargoes are termed uncontainerable or uncontainerisable.Containerised cargoes are cargoes carried in shipping containers. Thereare a number of standard sizes of container permitting their use in differenttransport modes worldwide. transport is generally effected in specialisedships which have cells into which the containers are lowered and wherethey are held in place by uprights known as cell guides. These ships are knownas cellular containerships. Container barges, also known as cellular barges,are barges similarly constructed and used for transport of containers.Containers can also be carried on conventional ships, often on deck, helddown by means of special container deck fittings.Roll- on/roll- off, often abbreviated to ro- ro, ships are of various types,from ferries to car carriers, but all have a loading and discharging ramp, connectingthe ship with the quay. Inside the ship are vehicle decks, often many.Vehicles are driven on and off the ship over these ramps and are stowed on thedecks. Other types of cargo, ranging from rolls of paper to heavy machinery,are towed on and off the ship on specialised trailers which are secured to thedeck. A variation is the sto- ro system where cargo is towed onto the ship ontrailers but then lifted off the trailers and stowed directly on the deck, enablingthe specialised trailers to be retained at the loading terminal. All cargo whichis on wheels and which can be driven or towed on to roll- on/roll- off ships isknown as rolling cargo or wheeled cargo.General cargo, or generals, is cargo consisting of goods unpacked orpacked, for example in cartons, crates, bags or bales, often palletised, butspecifically not cargo shipped in bulk (see below for definition of bulk cargo), ontrailers or in shipping containers although the term general cargo is also usedto describe all dry cargo other than bulk, taking in containerised goods.General cargo is presented in different ways. Increasingly, such goods areunitised, that is, grouped into units of regular size, known as unit loads, tofacilitate handling. As there are fewer lifts, unitisation increases the rate ofloading and discharging of a ship. Goods shipped on pallets are examples ofunitisation. Containerisation itself is sometimes said…

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