exclusive economic zone(EEZ) map of the world

States Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) extends no more than 200 nautical miles from the territorial sea baseline and is adjacent to the 12 nautical mile territorial sea. The Part V Article 55 of the UN Convention defines the EEZ as:

“The exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, subject to the specific legal regime established in this Part, under which the rights and jurisdiction of the coastal State and the rights and freedoms of other States are governed by the relevant provisions of this Convention.”

To provide an answer to these questions, in 1982 the United Nation Convention on the Law of the Sea defined a set of rules on how to divide the marine regions. A country has control over both the seafloor as well as ships travelling at the sea surface in an area that extends up to 12 nautical miles (22.2 km) from its coastline. This is called a country’s territorial sea and its outline is similar to the borders that exist on land.

Extending beyond this point and reaching up to 200 nautical miles (370.4 km) from a country’s coast lies its Exclusive Economic Zone. Within this region, a country owns the natural resources at the seafloor but has no say on what happens at the surface. Any ships in an Exclusive Economic Zone are essentially in international waters. This map of the week features the Exclusive Economic Zones of EU Countries for which a regulatory text exists in UN’s Convention on the Law of the Sea1. Note that such a text does not exist for the EEZ of some EU countries (e.g. UK, Italy, and Greece) and these are currently not shown on the map.

exclusive economic zone(EEZ) map of the world
time zones , with Exclusive Economic Zones of the earth
Exclusive Economic Zones of the World

The idea of allotting nations EEZs to give them more control of maritime affairs outside territorial limits gained acceptance in the late 20th century. Initially, a country’s sovereign territorial waters extended 3 nmi or 5.6 km (range of cannon shot) beyond the shore. In modern times, a country’s sovereign territorial waters extend to 12 nmi (22 km) beyond the shore. One of the first assertions of exclusive jurisdiction beyond the traditional territorial seas was made by the United States in the Truman Proclamation of 28 September 1945. However, it was Chile and Peru respectively that first claimed maritime zones of 200 nautical miles with the Presidential Declaration Concerning Continental Shelf of 23 June 1947 and Presidential Decree No. 781 of 1 August 1947.

The Exclusive Economic Zone: What It Is
The exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is an area where sovereign states have jurisdiction over resources. The EEZ differs from territorial waters in two respects. First, the jurisdiction of the coastal state within the EEZ only pertains to natural resources (fish, offshore oil, and gas), while the coastal state has full jurisdiction within its territorial sea. Second, the maximum width of the territorial sea is 12 nautical miles from baselines, while the maximum width of the EEZ is 200 nautical miles (370 km or 230 English miles). Baselines are lines drawn from headland to headland, enclosing fiords and bays, the maximum length of a straight base line being 24 nautical miles. Nevertheless, the jurisdiction over sedentary and underground resources is wider than this when the continental shelf reaches beyond 200 nautical miles. The rules delimiting the continental shelf are rather technical and are set out in Article 76 of the UN Law of the Sea Convention (see UN website, listed below). Earlier the 200-m depth contour was often taken as the limit of the continental shelf. Sedentary living resources are defined in the Law of the Sea Convention as fixed to the bottom or unable to move unless in contact with the ocean bottom.

Within its EEZ, a coastal state can regulate the use of resources as it finds in its best interest and impose penalties on those who do not abide by these regulations. The rules pertaining to the EEZ are a part of the UN Law of the Sea Convention.

In the numerous cases where countries share the same continental shelf or the distance between their shores is less than 400 nautical miles, boundaries between states have to be settled by negotiation. The Convention does not prescribe how this is to be done. In many, but by no means all cases, the so-called equidistance principle has been followed, implying that the boundary is drawn at equal distance between the adjacent countries. There are many cases of competing claims that still have not been resolved, particularly such as those that involve disputed sovereignty over uninhabited islands.

countries EEZ ranking (source: Wikipedia)

RankCountryEEZ km2Shelf km2EEZ+TIA km2
1 France11,691,000730,74512,366,417
2 United States11,351,0002,193,52621,814,306
3 Australia8,505,3482,194,00816,197,464
4 Russia7,566,6733,817,84324,664,915
5 United Kingdom6,805,586872,8917,048,486
6 Indonesia6,159,0322,039,3818,063,601
7 Canada5,599,0772,644,79515,607,077
8 Japan4,479,388214,9764,857,318
9 New Zealand4,420,565272,8984,688,285
10 Brazil3,830,955774,56312,345,832
11 Chile3,681,989252,9474,431,381
12 Kiribati3,441,8107,5233,442,536
13 Mexico3,269,386419,1025,141,968
14 Federated States of Micronesia2,996,41919,4032,997,121
15 Denmark2,551,238495,6574,761,811
16 Papua New Guinea2,402,288191,2562,865,128
17 Norway2,385,178434,0202,770,404
18 India2,305,143402,9965,592,406
19 Marshall Islands1,990,53018,4111,990,711
 Cook Islands1,960,0271,2131,960,267
20 Portugal1,727,40828,0001,819,498
21 Philippines1,590,780272,9211,890,780
22 Solomon Islands1,589,47736,2821,618,373
23 South Africa1,535,538156,3372,756,575
24 Seychelles1,336,55939,0631,337,014
25 Mauritius1,284,99729,0611,287,037
26 Fiji1,282,97847,7051,301,250
27 Madagascar1,225,259101,5051,812,300
28 Argentina1,159,063856,3463,939,463
29 Ecuador1,077,23141,0341,333,600
30 Spain1,039,23377,9201,545,225
31 Maldives923,32234,538923,622
32 Peru906,45482,0002,191,670
33 China877,019231,34010,473,980
34 Somalia825,05255,8951,462,709
35 Colombia808,15853,6911,949,906
36 Cape Verde800,5615,591804,594
37 Iceland751,345108,015854,345
38 Tuvalu749,7903,575749,816
39 Vanuatu663,25111,483675,440
40 Tonga659,5588,517660,305
41 Bahamas654,715106,323668,658
42 Palau603,9782,837604,437
43 Mozambique578,98694,2121,380,576
44 Morocco575,230115,1571,287,780
45 Costa Rica574,72519,585625,825
46 Namibia564,74886,6981,388,864
47 Yemen552,66959,2291,080,637
48 Italy541,915116,834843,251
49 Oman533,18059,071842,680
50 Myanmar532,775220,3321,209,353
51 Sri Lanka532,61932,453598,229
52 Angola518,43348,0921,765,133
53 Greece*505,57281,451637,529
54 South Korea475,469342,522575,469
55 Venezuela471,50798,5001,387,950
56 Turkey*462,00056,0931,045,216
57 Vietnam417,663365,198748,875
58 Ireland410,310139,935480,583
59 Libya351,58964,7632,111,129
60 Cuba350,75161,525460,637
61 Panama335,64653,404411,163
62 Malaysia334,671323,412665,474
63 Nauru308,48041308,501
64 Equatorial Guinea303,5097,820331,560
65 Thailand299,397230,063812,517
66 Pakistan290,00051,3831,117,911
67 Egypt263,45161,5911,265,451
68 Jamaica258,1379,802269,128
69 Dominican Republic255,89810,738304,569
70 Liberia249,73417,715361,103
71 Honduras249,54268,718362,034
72 Tanzania241,88825,6111,186,975
73 Ghana235,34922,502473,888
74 Saudi Arabia228,633107,2492,378,323
75 Nigeria217,31342,2851,141,081
76 Sierra Leone215,61128,625287,351
77 Gabon202,79035,020470,458
78 Barbados186,898426187,328
79 Côte d’Ivoire176,25410,175498,717
80 Iran168,718118,6931,797,468
81 Mauritania165,33831,6621,190,858
82 Comoros163,7521,526165,987
83 Sweden160,885154,604602,255
84 Senegal158,86123,092355,583
85 Netherlands154,01177,246192,345
86 Ukraine147,31879,142750,818
87 Uruguay142,16675,327318,381
88 Guyana137,76550,578352,734
89 São Tomé and Príncipe131,3971,902132,361
90 Samoa127,9502,087130,781
91 Suriname127,77253,631291,592
92 Haiti126,7606,683154,510
93 Algeria126,3539,9852,508,094
94 Nicaragua123,88170,874254,254
95 Guinea-Bissau123,72539,339159,850
96 Bangladesh118,81366,438230,390
97 Kenya116,94211,073697,309
98 Guatemala114,17014,422223,059
99 North Korea113,88850,337234,428
100 Antigua and Barbuda110,0894,128110,531
101 Tunisia101,85767,126265,467
102 Cyprus*98,7074,042107,958
103 El Salvador90,96216,852112,003
104 Finland[note 13]87,17185,109425,590
105 Republic of China (Taiwan)83,23143,016119,419
106 Eritrea77,72861,817195,328
107 Trinidad and Tobago74,19925,28479,329
108 East Timor70,32625,64885,200
109 Sudan68,14819,8271,954,216
110 Cambodia62,51562,515243,550
111 Guinea59,42644,755305,283
112 Croatia59,03250,277115,626
113 United Arab Emirates58,21857,474141,818
114 Germany57,48557,485414,599
115 Malta54,8235,30155,139
116 Estonia36,99236,99282,219
117 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines36,3021,56136,691
118 Belize35,35113,17858,317
119 Bulgaria34,30710,426145,186
120 Benin33,2212,721145,843
121 Qatar31,59031,59043,176
122 Republic of the Congo31,0177,982373,017
123 Poland29,79729,797342,482
124 Dominica28,98565929,736
125 Latvia28,45227,77293,011
126 Grenada27,4262,23727,770
127 Israel26,3523,74548,424
128 Romania23,62719,303262,018
129 Gambia23,1125,58134,407
130 Georgia21,9463,24391,646
131 Lebanon19,5161,06729,968
132 Cameroon16,54711,420491,989
133 Saint Lucia15,61754416,156
134 Albania13,6916,97942,439
135 Togo12,0451,26568,830
136 Kuwait11,02611,02628,844
137 Syria10,5031,085195,683
138 Bahrain10,22510,22510,975
139 Brunei10,0908,50915,855
140 Saint Kitts and Nevis9,97465310,235
141 Montenegro7,7453,89621,557
142 Djibouti7,4593,18730,659
143 Lithuania7,0317,03172,331
144 Belgium3,4473,44733,975
145 Democratic Republic of the Congo1,6061,5932,346,464
146 Singapore1,0671,0671,772
147 Iraq771771439,088
148 Monaco2882290
149 Palestine2562566,276
150 Slovenia22022020,493
151 Jordan1665989,508
152 Bosnia and Herzegovina505051,259
 Central African Republic622,984
 South Sudan619,745
 Burkina Faso274,222
 Czech Republic78,867
 North Macedonia25,713
 San Marino61
  Vatican City0.44
Total United Nations137,926,51525,149,113274,891,722

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