The Law of the Seas, and Maritime Security in Tanzania, is an important and complex topic that has implications for the political, economic, and social development of the country. This article will explore the background of Tanzanian law related to the Law of the Seas, the current challenges facing Tanzania in terms of Maritime Security, and potential solutions that can be implemented to address these concerns.
The Law of the Seas is a body of law developed by the United Nations and international agreements. It is designed to provide a framework of regulations and rules that govern the use of the world's seas and oceans. In Tanzania, the Law of the Seas has been used to define and protect its maritime borders, as well as to regulate activities such as fishing, shipping, and other maritime activities. Tanzania is part of the Indian Ocean Commission, a regional organization that has established a number of protocols and agreements related to maritime security, such as the Djibouti Code of Conduct and the Indian Ocean Memorandum of Understanding. In order to ensure the safety and security of its citizens, Tanzania must comply with the regulations set forth in these agreements.
Tanzania is a maritime nation with a long coastline and several offshore islands. It has an estimated exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of 1.35 million square kilometers, of which about 8.3 percent is within the EEZ of the Seychelles. Tanzania's coastline is also important for its fisheries, which contribute significantly to the country's economy. Tanzania is also a major transit point for East African shipping, and is a crucial link in the regional trade network.
The Tanzanian government has implemented a number of measures to protect its maritime interests. The government has established a Maritime Security Agency to oversee the enforcement of the Law of the Seas and to ensure the safety of its citizens and ships operating in the country's waters. The government also has an extensive network of coast guard vessels to protect against illegal fishing, smuggling, and other illegal activities.
Tanzania's legal system is based on the English common law system, which is supplemented by local custom and tradition. The Tanzanian Constitution guarantees the right to freedom of navigation for merchant vessels, although this right is subject to certain restrictions. Tanzania is also a party to a number of regional and international agreements related to the Law of the Seas, such as the Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).
Tanzania has also adopted a number of domestic laws related to the Law of the Seas. These include the Maritime Claims Act of 1987, which sets out the jurisdiction of the Tanzanian courts in matters related to maritime claims; the Merchant Shipping Act of 1988, which regulates shipping in Tanzanian waters; and the Fishing Act of 1989, which sets out the regulations on fishing in Tanzanian waters. In addition, Tanzania has adopted a number of regional and international agreements related to the Law of the Seas.
Challenges of Maritime Security
Despite the measures taken by the government to protect its maritime interests, maritime security remains a challenge for Tanzania. There is concern that illegal activities such as smuggling, piracy, and illegal fishing could pose a threat to the economic and social development of the country. In addition, the lack of resources for the enforcement of the Law of the Seas, and the lack of expertise in maritime security, are impediments to effective maritime security in Tanzania.
In order to address the challenges of maritime security in Tanzania, there are a number of steps that can be taken. The government should continue to strengthen its enforcement of the Law of the Seas and its monitoring of illegal activities. It should also work to build capacity in maritime security, including training personnel and improving infrastructure.
In addition, the government should explore the possibility of entering into regional and international agreements with other countries in the region. Such agreements could facilitate cooperation in the enforcement of the Law of the Seas and the sharing of information and resources related to maritime security.
Furthermore, the government should consider expanding its existing maritime security infrastructure, such as investing in new vessels and installing new surveillance equipment. This could help to deter illegal activities and improve the safety of ships operating in Tanzanian waters.
The Law of the Seas and Maritime Security in Tanzania are important topics, with significant implications for the political, economic, and social development of the country. Tanzania has taken a number of steps to protect its maritime interests, but there are still challenges that must be addressed. By strengthening its enforcement of the Law of the Seas, entering into regional and international agreements, and investing in new surveillance equipment, Tanzania could improve its maritime security and protect its citizens and ships operating in its waters.