Indonesia is an archipelagic nation with a vast maritime territory. As such, it is heavily dependent on its seas for economic development and security, and is faced with the challenge of managing and protecting its maritime space from various threats. This article will focus on Indonesia's maritime matters in law and security, highlighting the legal framework, security challenges, and steps taken to strengthen maritime security.
Indonesia's Maritime Matters in Law
Indonesia's legal framework for maritime governance is based on its 1945 Constitution, which stipulates that all of Indonesia's waters, both internal and maritime, are the exclusive property of the people, with the government responsible for their management and protection. The framework is further supplemented by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which sets out the legal rights and responsibilities of countries in the oceans and seas.
In accordance with international law, Indonesia claims an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) up to a distance of 200 nautical miles from its territorial sea baseline, giving it control over the exploitation of marine resources, such as fisheries, oil, and gas, within the EEZ. The country also has the right to protect its maritime resources from illegal exploitation and activities, and to manage maritime traffic, including the safety and navigational regulations of its ports.
Maritime security is an important issue for Indonesia, as it is dependent on its seas for economic development and security. The country is faced with a range of maritime security challenges, including piracy, terrorism, and illegal fishing. In order to protect its maritime domain, Indonesia has established a number of naval and coast guard forces, which are tasked with safeguarding the country's maritime resources and assets.
Legal Framework for Maritime Security
In order to address the threats to its maritime security, Indonesia has established a comprehensive legal framework. This includes the ratification of UNCLOS, which sets out the basic principles of the law of the sea, and the passage of the 2002 Law on the Sea and Fisheries, which seeks to protect, manage, and conserve marine resources. The law also establishes the legal framework for the enforcement of maritime security, including the creation of a Maritime Security Agency and the establishment of a National Maritime Security Coordinating Body.
Maritime Security Challenges
Despite Indonesia's efforts to strengthen maritime security, the country continues to face a range of security challenges in its maritime domain. These include illegal fishing, piracy, terrorism, and transnational organized crime. Illegal fishing has been a persistent problem, with foreign vessels taking advantage of Indonesia's vast maritime resources. Piracy in the Strait of Malacca is a major concern, with a reported decrease in incidents in recent years, but still an ongoing threat. Terrorism is also a growing threat in the region, with the risk of terrorist organizations exploiting weak maritime security to launch attacks.
Strengthening Indonesia's Maritime Security
In order to address these maritime security challenges, Indonesia has taken a number of steps to strengthen its maritime security. This has included the deployment of naval and coast guard forces to patrol its waters, as well as the establishment of a Maritime Security Agency and a National Maritime Security Coordinating Body. The country has also increased its maritime surveillance capabilities, through the use of satellites and other monitoring systems.
In addition, Indonesia has signed a number of bilateral and multilateral agreements with other countries in the region, such as Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand, which have helped to strengthen maritime security in the region. The country has also participated in regional initiatives such as the ASEAN Maritime Forum, which aims to promote cooperation between member states on maritime security issues.
Towards a Maritime Security Strategy
Indonesia is in the process of developing a comprehensive Maritime Security Strategy. This strategy will set out the country's objectives and priorities for maritime security, as well as the legal framework and operational procedures to be followed. The strategy will also focus on the strengthening of regional and international cooperation, in order to ensure the effective management and protection of Indonesia's maritime resources.
Indonesia faces a range of maritime security challenges, which require a comprehensive and coordinated approach. The country is taking steps to strengthen its maritime security, including the establishment of legal frameworks, the deployment of naval and coast guard forces, and the participation in regional initiatives. With the development of its Maritime Security Strategy, Indonesia will be better equipped to protect its maritime resources and ensure the safety of its people.