(a) Scope of ‘Activities in the 'The next issue to be examined involves a specific mechanism for promoting the benefit of mankind as a whole. In this regard, Article 153(1) provides that activities in the Area shall be organised, carried out and controlled by the Authority on behalf of mankind as a whole. ‘Activities in the Area' means all activities of exploration for and exploitation of the resources of the Area. According to the of , the expression ‘activities in the Area', in the context of both exploration and exploitation, includes,first of all, the recovery of from the and their lifting to the water surface. More specifically, the Seabed Disputes Chamber made clear that ‘activities in the Area' include: drilling, dredging, coring and excavation; disposal, dumping and discharge into the of sediment, wastes or other effluents; and construction and operation or maintenance of installations, pipelines and other devices related to such activities. The evacuation of water from the minerals and the preliminary separation of materials of no commercial interest, including their disposal at , are deemed to be covered by the expression ‘activities in the Area'. However, processing, namely the process through which metals are extracted from the minerals and transportation, and transportation to points on from the part of the superjacent to the part of the Area in which the contractor operates are excluded from ‘activities in the Area'. (b) Structure of the International Seabed AuthorityThe is an international organisation governing the Area and activities there. All States Parties to the LOSC are ipso facto members of the Authority. The Authority sits in Jamaica and comprises three principal organs, that is to say, an Assembly, a Council and a Secretariat. In addition, it has its operational organ, i.e. the Enterprise. The Assembly, which consists of all the members of the Authority, is the supreme organ of the Authority to which the other principal organs shall be accountable as specifically provided for in the LOSC. The Assembly is entitled to establish general policies on any question or matter within the competence of the Authority. The Council, which consists of thirty-six members of the Authority, is the executive organ of the Authority. Each member of the Council shall be elected for four years. The Council is empowered to establish the specific policies to be pursued by the Authority on any question or matter within the competence of the Authority. The Secretariat of the Authority comprises a Secretary-General and such staff as the Authority may require. In the performance of their duties, the Secretary-General and the staff shall not seek or receive instructions from any government or from any other source external to the Authority. They shall refrain from any action which might reflect on their position as international officials responsible only to the Authority. In addition, the Secretary-General and the staff shall have no financial interest in any activity relating to exploration and exploitation in the Area. Those…

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