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With the ports of Singapore at one end and Hong Kong-Macau at the other, the South China Sea is one of the most heavily shipped seas in the world. The South China Sea is one of the most important economic and environmental regions in the world. More than half of the world’s fishing vessels are in the South China Sea, and millions of people depend on these waters for their food and livelihoods.View More About the South China Sea
The Black Sea was once a rich fishing ground, an
abundant source of fish for everyone from the Ancient
Greeks to the modern Soviet Union. Sturgeon and their
eggs were so plentiful in the estuaries of Black Sea rivers
that they were once the food of the poor.
Etymology. The first to name it the Baltic Sea (“Mare Balticum”) was 11th century German chronicler Adam of Bremen. The origin of the name is speculative. He may have based it on the mythical North European island Baltia, mentioned by Xenophon. The Baltic Sea is surrounded by nine countries: Denmark, Germany, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Russia, Finland and Sweden. As long as people have lived here, the Baltic Sea has served as an avenue to connect the bordering countries and as a source of human livelihood. The largest expanse of brackish water in the world, the semienclosed and relatively shallow Baltic Sea is of great interest to scientists, while to historians it represents the economic core of the Hanseatic League, the great medieval trading group of northern European ports.View More About the Baltic Sea
Few of the world’s seas have come under such environmental pressure as the Baltic and North seas. Both seas are surrounded by cities, ports, and industry and some of the most intensively farmed land in the world. The North Sea has long been important as one of Europe’s most productive fisheries. It also serves as a prominent shipping zone among European countries and between Europe and the Middle East.
The North Sea (historically also known as the German Ocean) is a part of the Atlantic Ocean, located between Norway and Denmark in the east, Scotland and England in the west, and Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and France in the south. The North Sea is bounded by the coastlines of England, Scotland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and France, and by imaginary lines delimiting the western approaches to the Channel (5°W), the northern Atlantic between Scotland and Norway (62°N, 5°W), and the Baltic in the Danish Straits.
Geologists once thought that the Mediterranean was a tiny remnant of the Tethys Sea, the great ocean that once separated the world’s northern and southern continents. In fact, the Black Sea is the only remnant of the Tethys in Europe. The Mediterranean has a far briefer but more complex history. Essentially, the Mediterranean is a deep basin between the converging tectonic plates of Europe, Anatolia, and Africa, and the eastern, central, and western Mediterranean have different geological histories, which is why today, the east is earthquake prone, the centre is dotted with active volcanoes, and the west is relatively quiet.View More About the Mediterranean
Europe is surrounded by seas, none of them large or very deep, but they are hugely rich ecologically and culturally. The continent is bound by the Atlantic, the Arctic Ocean, the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. The Baltic is entirely within Europe. Each of these is subdivided into smaller seas and straits.View More The Seas of Europe
THE THIRD LARGEST of the world’s oceans, the Indian Ocean covers 28 million sq miles (73 million sq km) and contains some 5,000 islands, many of them surrounded by coral reefs. This ocean is unique because, unlike the Atlantic and Pacific, it has no outlet to the north. It contains both the saltiest sea (the Red Sea), and the warmest sea (the Persian Gulf) on Earth. It is bounded by Asia to the north, Africa to the west and Australia to the east. To the south it is bounded by the Southern Ocean or Antarctica, depending on the definition in use. Along its core, the Indian Ocean has some large marginal or regional seas such as the Arabian Sea, the Laccadive Sea, the Somali Sea, Bay of Bengal, and the Andaman Sea. The Indian Ocean is at risk from pollution, especially from oil tankers leaving the Persian Gulf. Monsoon rains and tropical storms can bring disastrous flooding to its northern coasts.View More THE INDIAN OCEAN
The Persian Gulf is an arm of the Arabian Sea between the mountainous coast of southwestern Iran and the rather flat coast of Arabian Peninsula. The gulf is approximately 1000 km long and 200 to 300 km wide, with an area of about 250,000 km². The inland sea is connected to the Gulf of Oman in the east by the Strait of Hormuz.View More Persian Gulf
Southeast Asia is a vast subregion of Asia, roughly described as geographically situated east of the Indian subcontinent, south of China, and northwest of Australia. The region is bounded by the Bay of Bengal in the west, the Indian Ocean in the south, the South China Sea in the center, and the Philippine Sea and the Pacific Ocean in the east.View More South-East Asia
In May 1999 Denmark and the United Kingdom concluded an agreement (1999 Agreement) concerning their overlapping claims to fisheries zones and continental shelf in North Atlantic waters located between the Faroe Islands and Scotland. The 1999 Agreement designates continental shelf and fisheries zone boundaries in addition to a ‘Special Area’ of water column that remains subject to the overlapping jurisdictional claims both States.View More Denmark(Faroe Islands)–United Kingdom maritime boundary and Special Area
In 1993 Colombia and Jamaica concluded a treaty (1993 Treaty) concerning their overlapping claims to a continental shelf and EEZ in the Caribbean Sea. Article 1 of the 1993 Treaty establishes a maritime boundary between the two States. Immediately to the west of the boundary, the 1993 Treaty also establishes a ‘Joint Regime Area’ in which, ‘pending the determination of the jurisdictional limits of each Party …, the Parties agree to establish … a zone of joint management, control, exploration and exploitation of living and non-living resources’. Article 3(1), sub-paragraphs (b) and (c) of the 1993 Treaty exclude two circular areas of 12 nautical miles radius from the Joint Regime Area. One circular area surrounds the cays of the Seranilla Bank and the other surrounds the cays of Bajo Nuevo. Both of these groups of features are claimed by Colombia – a claim that has been disputed on various occasions by Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua and the United States.View More Colombia–Jamaica maritime boundary and the Joint Regime Area
In 1979 the Canada and the United States agreed to empower a Chamber of the ICJ to designate a single seabed and water-column boundary in the Gulf of Maine. The Chamber’s 1984 Judgment establishes a segmented boundary that commences at an offshore point mutually agreed by both States (Point A) and terminates at the point of intersection with the United States’ 200 nautical mile limit. McDorman notes that, prior to the conclusion of the 1979 agreement, Canadian and US negotiators had proposed several options concerning provisional joint management of overlapping claims in the Gulf of Maine. These proposals did not gain traction because delimitation issues proved difficult to set aside. In particular, the location of competing boundary claims influenced political views concerning the fair division of fisheries and potential hydrocarbon resources.View More Canada–United States overlapping claims in North Atlantic and surrounding Machias Seal Island and North Rock
Barbados and Guyana assert overlapping EEZ claims and continental shelf entitlements in an OCA located opposite the North East coast of continental South America. As discussed in the following paragraphs, the jurisdictional entitlements of Barbados and Guyana in this area are contested by Venezuela. Design features of provisional joint management frameworks:View More Barbados–Guyana overlapping claims and Co-operation Zone in Atlantic ocean
In 1973 Argentina and Uruguay concluded an agreement (1973 Agreement) concerning overlapping claims to the Río de la Plata and maritime zones seaward of a closing line at the mouth of the river. Seaward of the closing line, the 1973 Agreement establishes a ‘lateral maritime boundary’ and boundary of the continental shelf, which are both defined by a single equidistance line. The closing line and lateral maritime boundary are depicted in Figure. The lateral maritime boundary delimits several jurisdictional competencies recognized in the Agreement, which relate to: the exploration, conservation, and exploitation of resources; control and supervision of fishing activities; protection and preservation of the environment; scientific research; and construction and emplacement of installations. Viewing this delimitation of competencies in light of LOSC Part V, it is reasonable to regard the lateral maritime boundary as a delimitation of the EEZ and associated coastal state jurisdiction.View More Argentina–Uruguay overlapping claims concerning boundary delimitation and the Río de la Plata
On 25 November 1981, Canada and the United States notified to the Court a Special Agreement whereby they referred to a Chamber of the Court the question of the delimitation of the maritime boundary dividing the continental shelf and fisheries zones of the two Parties in the Gulf of Maine area. This Chamber was constituted by an Order of 20 January 1982, and it was the first time that a case had been heard by an ad hoc Chamber of the Court.View More Maritime boundaries between United States of America and Canada(in Atlantic sea)
The two respective States agreed on 4 December 1997 to delimit the boundary in the mouth area of the Mutlidere/Rezovska River and the maritime areas in the Black Sea. The agreement concerning the delimitation of the maritime areas between the two adjacent States is based on a simplified equidistance line to produce an equitable and just delimitation. This maritime border was developed as an all-purpose boundary dividing the overlapping exclusive economic zone (EEZ) and continental shelf entitlements of the Parties.View More Maritime boundaries between Turkey and Bulgaria
The land boundary between Syria and Turkey reaches the coast in Qasab Bay. The equidistant line is forced northwestwards to Syria’s advantage by Ras el- Basit, a limestone headland. When Turkey’s Ras el-Khanzir comes into range the line of equidistance is directed due west until the trijunction with Cyprus is reached. This trijunction is near 36° 02’ N and 35° 10’ E and the Turco-Syrian boundary extends for about 40 nm. This line appears to be equitable but it will require the question of Hatay Province to be resolved.View More maritime boundaries between Turkey and Syria
In accordance with international law (both UNCLOS and customary), the delimitation of the continental shelf or the EEZ between States with opposite or adjacent coasts shall be effected by agreement on the basis of international law in order to achieve an equitable result. Cyprus has repeatedly called upon Turkey to enter into negotiations for the delimitation of their maritime zones, in accordance with international law. This invitation to Turkey was, in fact, repeated in a letter addressed to the UN Secretary-General, on 12th December 2018. Turkey dismissed any efforts for a peaceful negotiation, and has resorted to actions that jeopardize and hamper the reaching of a final agreement, in violation of Articles 74(3) and 83(3) UNCLOS, which reflect customary principles such as good faith, self-restraint and peaceful settlement of disputesView More maritime boundaries between Turkey and Cyprus
The strategic relevance of the Greek and Cypriot EEZs can be further perceived if noted that Greece and Cyprus stand at the crossroad of three continents and jointly share a common border with another ten countries, out of which with eight of them common sea borders also exist. This modification of the Mediterranean geography is certainly directly related to the application to issues of fisheries, circular economy renewable energy policies and offshore energy challenges. However, if we further consider the outlook shaped in the offshore production of hydrocarbons in Greece, Cyprus and Israel, briefly portrayed by the ex-Greek PM as having the potential to cover half of the needs in natural gas in Europe in the coming 30 years, we realize that it is no hyperbole to consider the Mediterranean as the Middle-East of the 21st century.View More maritime boundaries between Greece and Cyprus
On August 6, 2020, Greece and Egypt signed an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) agreement in Cairo delimiting their maritime boundaries in the Eastern Mediterranean. This recent move came after Turkey had temporarily suspended the activities of its seismic research vessel Oruç Reis as a de-escalatory gesture to open up space for diplomatic negotiations with Greece as part of Germany’s mediation efforts. As such, Athens’s recent move undermined these efforts and once more bore witness to Greece’s intransigence.View More maritime boundaries between Greece and Egypt
Turkey and Greece has Unsettled median lines between their own maritime borders. In 2018, Former Foreign Minister Nikos Kotzias said Greece is ready to extend its territorial waters from 6 to 12 nautical miles. In the first stage, he said, Greece will expand its sovereignty towards the west from the Diapontia Islands, a cluster of small islands in the Ionian Sea, to Antikythera, an island lying between the Peloponnese and Crete. But the plan is to also do the same in the Aegean.View More maritime boundaries between Greece and Turkey
Till now Greece and Libya hasn’t achieve to any agreement about maritime boundaries and all the maritime border between them based on their unilateral statements. some disputed situation raise from this point that Greece and turkey has many challenge about their maritime zone. for example Greece take EEZ for own island in eastern Mediterranean sea, but turkey has opposite idea. for this reason they have unsettled issue on the Mediterranean zone.View More Maritime boundaries between Greece and Libya
In 2014, Estonia and the Russian Federation signed their land and maritime boundary agreements that are currently awaiting ratification. It is established that the agreed…View More maritime boundaries between Russia and Estonia
between Russia and Finland, the boundary is on the shore of Gulf of Finland, in which there is a maritime boundary between the respective territorial waters, terminating in a narrow strip of international waters between Finnish and Estonian territorial waters. In 2014, Estonia and the Russian Federation signed their land and maritime boundary agreements that are currently awaiting ratification. This study reconstructs the maritime boundary delimitation between the two States. In particular, the role of islands and pre-existing agreements for the delimitation of the territorial sea boundary in the south-eastern part of the Gulf of Finland are critically examined. It is established that the agreed maritime boundary line is a median line which was influenced by the use of the special circumstances method in the delimitation process. in relation to the first part of the Finland-USSR maritime boundary, military, strategic and related navigational considerations have had a powerful influence on the course of maritime boundaries and it had not based on equidistance method alone.View More maritime boundaries between Finland and Russia
Agreement between the Republic of Estonia and the Republic of Finland on the Boundary of the Maritime Zones in the Gulf of Finland and the Northern Baltic Sea was signed in 18 October 1996. In principle, the main aim of the negotiations was not to try to establish a maritime boundary in areas· where no such boundary existed before. In fact, only a very minor part of this agreement could fit such a description. What the Estonia-Finland Agreement did rather was to provide an answer to the much more subtle question about the ·exact legal value to be attributed under international law to the previously concluded maritime boundary agreements, in casu by the former Soviet Union.View More maritime boundaries between Finland and Estonia
Through an Agreement of 2 November 1998 Estonia and Sweden delimited their entire maritime boundary, except for a short segment extending to the trijunction point with Finland.’ This maritime boundary had been previously delimited between Sweden and the Soviet Union in 1988. The 1998 Agreement between Estonia and Sweden adopts, with some minor technical adjustments, the boundary line established by Sweden and the Soviet Union. However, the 1998 Agreement does not make any reference to this fact. In this way the 1998 Agreement reflects the wish of Estonia not to be considered a successor state to a treaty concluded by the Soviet Union and at the same time reflects the agreement of the parties that the maritime boundary which was in place when Estonia regained its independence also forms the boundary between Estonia and Sweden.View More maritime boundaries between Sweden and Estonia
On 12 July 1996, Estonia and Latvia also concluded a treaty on the maritime delimitation in Gulf of Riga, the Strait of Irbe and the Baltic Sea. The delimitation line was influenced by the specific geographical configuration of the costs and historical considerations. The existence of a historic boundary between Estonia and Latvia which was established during the 1920’s was also taken into account.View More maritime boundaries between Latvia and Estonia
Latvia and Sweden maritime boundaries based on Agreement on the delimitation of the continental shelf and of the Swedish fishery zone and the Soviet economic zone in the Baltic Sea, which it is make the border line by median-equidistance line method. also, agreement between the Government of the Republic of Estonia, the Government of the Republic of Latvia and the Government of the Kingdom of Sweden related to the Common Maritime Boundary Point in the Baltic Sea, 30 April 1997. This agreement entered into force on 20 February 1998.View More maritime boundaries between Latvia and Sweden
All of Baltic maritime agreements, except the one between Latvia and Lithuania, have moreover entered into force by now. the Latvia-Lithuania Agreement is first of all an overall maritime boundary agreement, including the territorial sea, exclusive economic zone as well as the continental shelf. Secondly, it added English to the languages of the parties as an authentic text of the agreement. The latter is a rather new development in the Baltic Sea, which started to manifest itself after the dissolution of the former Soviet Union with respect to delimitation agreements directly related to this particular phenomenon. Up to the middle of the 1990s maritime delimitation agreements in this region had always been drafted in the respective languages of the parties only, these texts being equally authentic. Not one single exception to this rule existed. Since the middle of the 1990s this is already the fourth agreement which added English as a supplementary authentic text. What all of them, moreover, have in common is that in case problems of interpretation arise among the different authentic languages, the English language text shall prevail. No difficulty therefore arose when reproducing the English text in Annex 2.View More maritime boundaries between Latvia and Lithuania
The Agreement between the Government of Lithuania and the Government of Sweden concerning Delimitation of the Maritime Boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone and the Continental Shelf in the Baltic Sea was initialed at the meeting of delegations of Lithuania and Sweden on 23 December 2014 in Vilnius. The countries plan to sign the agreement in 2014. The Lithuanian-Swedish maritime boundary, which has a length of about 15 kilometers, is being delimited for the first time in history. The agreement establishes a single maritime boundary, dividing the continental shelf and exclusive economic zones (EEZ) between the parties. The boundary extends for a distance of about 8 nautical miles (M) and consists of four turning points, of which one is also a definitive terminal point. The northern terminal point, on the other hand, stops just short of the hypothetical tripoint that will have to be settled by means of direct negotiations between all the parties concerned, including Latvia.View More maritime boundaries between Sweden and Lithuania
Lithuania-Russia maritime boundary in fact consists of two separate reports: one relating to the delimitation of the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf, and one relating to the territorial sea. Treaty between the Republic of Lithuania and the Russian Federation on the Delimitation of the Exclusive Economic Zone and the Continental Shelf in the Baltic Sea, 24 October 1997.This treaty has not yet entered into force.View More maritime boundaries between Russia(Kaliningrad) and Lithuania
The continental shelf boundary between Poland and the Soviet Union extends for a distance of 77.5 n.m. with an average length of 19.4 n.m. for each segment of the boundary. The entire area covered by the Agreement lies on the continental shelf of the Baltic Sea. The average depth along the CSB is about 50 fathoms.View More maritime boundaries between Russia(Kaliningrad) and Poland
An median line-equidistance-based maritime boundary between Sweden and Poland would extend generally from a Denmark-Poland-Sweden tripoint to Russia-Poland-Sweden. The agreement between the Government of the Kingdom of Sweden, the Government of the Polish People’s Republic and the Government of the USSR concerning the Common Delimitation Point of their Maritime Boundaries in the Baltic Sea several key tripoints in the Baltic have been finalised through agreements between Poland, Sweden and the USSR (1989), Estonia, Latvia and Sweden (1997) and Estonia, Finland and Sweden (2001). The tripoint between Poland, Sweden and the former USSR, was signed on the very day that the last bilateral agreement, i.e. the one between Poland and Sweden, entered into force.View More Maritime boundaries between Poland and Sweden
The Finland-Sweden continental shelf agreement is plotted on the attached DMA/HC charts 44030 and 44180. The official Finnish nautical charts cited in Article 6 of the Agreement were used to compute the distances between the boundary points and Finnish straight baselines. Official Swedish charts Nos. 41, 42, 51, 53, and 71 (1:200,000) were used to measure distances to the Swedish baselines.
The shelf boundary extends for a distance of approximately 419.76 nautical miles and has 17 turning or terminal points. The boundary runs the entire length of the Gulf of Bothnia, through the narrow Aland Sea, and into the northernmost part of Baltic Sea.
Norway and Russia have delimited their maritime jurisdiction in the maritime areas north of their land boundary. Norway and the former Soviet Union concluded a maritime boundary agreement in 1957 delimiting the territorial sea and continental shelf within Varangerfjorden, a fjord lying seaward of the Norway-Soviet land boundary. The 1957 agreement was superseded by a 2007 agreement between Norway and Russia that delimited the territorial sea, continental shelf, and EEZ in the Varangerfjorden area. This boundary extends from the terminus of the land boundary to an area just seaward of the mouth of Varangerfjorden and is composed of geodetic lines connecting six points, with a total length of approximately 39 M. The agreement contains provisions pertaining to the existence of possible hydrocarbon deposits extending across the boundary line.
Norway and Russia concluded a maritime boundary agreement in 2010 delimiting the EEZ and continental shelf of the two countries in the Barents Sea and Arctic Ocean. The boundary is composed of geodetic lines connecting eight points, with a total length of approximately 907 M. The boundary begins at the terminus of the Varangerfjorden boundary (in the south) agreed in 2007 and terminates in the Arctic Ocean at the point where the last boundary segment (between boundary points 7 and 8) intersects with a line connecting the continental shelf limits of both countries “as established in accordance with Article 76 and Annex II of the Convention.” The 2010 boundary separates the maritime zones generated by the mainland coasts of both countries and also by Svalbard (to the west) and Russia’s Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya (to the east).
The territorial sea boundary between Norway and Sweden also has a long history having been delimited through an arbitral award of 23 October 1909 following earlier agreements in 1661, 1897 and 1904. By virtue of a compromise signed on March 14, 1908, Norway and Sweden decided to submit to arbitration the question of the maritime boundary between the two countries, insofar as it was not settled by the Resolution royal of March 15, 1904 . The Tribunal constituted for the purposes of this arbitration was called upon to decide whether the frontier line had been fixed either entirely or in part by the Treaty of 1661, and if not, to fix this line taking into account the circumstances of fact and principles of international law. It was composed as follows: Mr. JA Loeff, from the Netherlands; MFVN Beichmann, from Norway, and MK Hj. L. Hammarskjôld, from Sweden. Alone, the latter was a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague. The Tribunal sat from August 28 to October 18, 1909, and meanwhile visited the disputed area. He rendered his award dated October 23, 1909. By this award, the Tribunal determined the maritime boundary between Norway and Sweden, in application of the principles in force in the two countries at the time of the conclusion of the original delimitation treaty. and in view of several long-standing factual circumstances. Settlement of the question of the maritime boundary between Norway and Sweden – Competence of the Tribunal determined by the interpretation of the Compromis – Maritime territory as essential appurtenance of land territory a fundamental principle of International Law – Median line – Thalweg – Historic title. Sweden established an EEZ in 1993 which in the North Sea follows the previously agreed continental shelf boundary with Norway.View More Maritime boundaries between Norway and Sweden
morocco and Portugal doesn’t achieve to any agreement about maritime borders or boundaries yet. all their delimitation based on national legislation which is in connection to median line-equidistance system. their most subjects in maritime boundaries related to exclusive economic zone and continental shelf area. According to several Spanish media outlets, Morocco does not have the right to delimit its maritime borders without authorization from both Spanish and Portuguese authorities.View More maritime boundaries between Portugal and morocco
The pending maritime delimitations between Spain and Morocco are highly complex and noteworthy due to the existence of diverse factors, namely the particularity that the delimitations shall be conducted in two different seas: the Alboran Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Moreover, various sovereignty issues must be addressed, such as the Spanish enclaves in North Africa, which are claimed by Morocco generating maritime entitlements, and the Western Sahara dispute and Morocco’s intention to include the Western Sahara maritime areas under its jurisdiction. In terms of the latter issue, this article studies the fisheries agreements concluded between the European Union and Morocco and the recent decisions given by the Court of Justice of the European Union, declaring those agreements prohibited under international law in respect of Western Sahara waters. Other significant matters analyzed are the views of both countries, the existence of several overlapping maritime claims with third States and the negotiations that have been carried out thus far to reach an agreement delimiting the maritime boundaries. On this subject, it is crucial to determine whether a tacit agreement exists – on the basis of the hydrocarbon activities licensed by Spain and Morocco – establishing the maritime boundary between the Canary Islands and Morocco’s Atlantic coast.View More maritime boundaries between Spain and morocco
In 1976, Spain and Portugal concluded two treaties delimiting the territorial sea, contiguous zone, and continental shelf between the two States in the Atlantic Ocean. However, these treaties have not entered into force. The two countries have additional unresolved maritime boundaries, including with respect to the Canary Islands (Spain) and the Madeira Islands (Portugal). Spain’s Royal Decree of 1977 establishes a straight baseline system for its mainland coast that consists of 84 points and 75 segments. it seems that “Portugal is now opposed to ratification and favors the equidistant line for both boundaries”View More maritime boundaries between Spain and Portugal